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Anne Frank Biography
Who was Anne Frank?
German-born Jewish Holocaust victim Anne Frank is well-known for keeping a journal of her experiences. To avoid Nazi persecution, Anne and her family spent two years in hiding. ‘The diary of a Young Girl’, which she kept throughout this period, has been published.
Anne Frank Early years
On June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, she was born and was given the name Annelies Marie Frank. Otto and Edith Frank were her parents.
Anne spent her first five years of life in an apartment on the outskirts of Frankfurt with her parents and older sister, Margot. Otto Frank moved to Amsterdam in the Netherlands, where he had links in the business world, after the Nazis took over in 1933. The remainder of the Frank family arrived shortly after, with Anne arriving last in February 1934 after spending time with her grandparents in Aachen.
The Fate of Jews in Amsterdam
Otto Frank (1889–1980), a German merchant, moved his wife, two kids, and himself to Amsterdam at the beginning of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi government. Anne was forced to switch to a Jewish school in 1941 following the occupation of the Netherlands by German soldiers. She was given a red-and-white plaid diary for her 13th birthday on June 12, 1942. “I hope I will be able to confess everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support,” she wrote in the book that day.
Anne Frank In Hiding
The Franks went into hiding on July 6, 1942, in the backroom office and warehouse of Otto Frank’s food-products company when Anne’s sister, Margot, was threatened with deportation (allegedly to a forced-labor camp).
The Frank family and four other Jews—Hermann and Auguste van Pels, their son, Peter, and Fritz Pfeffer—lived segregated in the “hidden annex” with the help of a few non-Jewish friends, including Miep Gies, who smuggled in food and other supplies. The daily struggles of living in hiding, from little irritations to the worry of being discovered, were chronicled by Anne faithfully in her diary during this time.
The Secret Annex was described by Anne in her diary as having numerous small apartments and constrained hallways. The Anne Frank Guide claims that Anne and Fritz Pfeffer shared a room, while Otto, Edith, and Margot occupied a different one.
Hermann and Auguste van Pels slept in the shared living room and kitchen area, while Peter had his own modest room. Additionally, there was a front desk, a tiny attic, and a bathroom. Anne watched via the windows in the attic and front office in the evenings. She saw a chestnut tree in the attic, which prompted her to write in her diary about how she felt about nature.
According to the Anne Frank House, the inmates of the Secret Annex spent a lot of time reading and studying, including learning English and enrolling in correspondence courses using the names of the aides. The inmates had to adhere to a rigid schedule that included times when they had to be silent in order to prevent office staff from hearing them. They hardly ever flushed the toilet during the day because they were afraid the workers might hear.
She spoke about usual teen concerns as well as her aspirations for the future, which included becoming a writer or journalist. On August 1, 1944, Anne wrote her final entry in her diary. The Gestapo, acting on a tip from Dutch authorities, found the annex three days later.
Anne Frank Arrest and Deportation
On September 3, 1944, the penultimate train to depart Westerbork for Auschwitz carried the Frank family to the Dutch transit camp of Westerbork before continuing on to Auschwitz in German-occupied Poland.
The following month, Anne and Margot were sent to Bergen-Belsen. Just before Auschwitz was evacuated on January 18, 1945, Anne’s mother passed away in the first few days of January.
How Did Anne Frank Die?
The Dutch government determined that Anne and Margot both died in a typhus epidemic in March 1945, just weeks before Bergen-Belsen was liberated. However, researchers recently discovered new evidence, including analysis of archival data and first-person accounts, suggesting that the sisters may have died in February 1945.
When Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet forces, on January 27, 1945, Otto Frank was discovered hospitalised there.
The Diary of a Young Girl
The Diary of a Young Girl, usually referred to as The Diary of Anne Frank, was a diary kept by Jewish adolescent Anne Frank during the two years that her family spent hiding (1942–1944) while the Netherlands was occupied by the Germans in World War II. Two years after Anne’s death in a concentration camp, the novel was initially released in 1947, and it later turned into a masterpiece of war literature.
Otto Frank received the Gestapo documents left behind by friends who later examined the family’s hiding spot following their incarceration. He discovered Anne’s diary, which was made public as Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, among them (originally in Dutch, 1947). It charts her emotional development throughout adversity and is precocious in both style and insight. She stated, “I still feel that people are genuinely nice at heart, in spite of everything,” in it.
The Holocaust diary that has been translated into more than 65 languages is The Diary, and Anne is likely the most well-known Holocaust victim. The Diary was also adapted into a play, which had its Broadway debut in October 1955 and received the Pulitzer Prize for best drama and the Tony Award for best play in 1956. George Stevens helmed a 1959 motion picture adaptation of the play.
Otto Frank and his chosen screenwriters, Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, were accused of sanitising and de-Judaizing the plot in an early draught of the play by screenwriter Meyer Levin, which was subsequently realised as a 35-minute radio drama. The drama was revived (with additions) on Broadway in 1997–1998 after being often played in high schools throughout the world.
Published in 1995, a new English translation of the Diary includes passages that were cut from the previous version, making the updated translation over one-third longer than the original. The hideout of the Frank family on Amsterdam’s Prinsengracht became a museum that consistently ranks among the most popular tourist attractions in the city.
Diary: compilation and publication
Only Otto Frank survived the war out of the eight people in the hidden annexe. When he eventually made it back to Amsterdam, Gies gave him a number of documents that she had kept from the annexe. Anne’s diary was among the files, but certain notebooks—most notably the ones from 1943—were gone. Otto started going over Anne’s writings in order to realise her ambition of being published.
Her revised entries were written on loose sheets of paper and were referred to as the “B” version. The original entries were written in a red and white checkered journal and became known as the “A” version. Otto eventually created the “C” version of her diary, which left out almost 30% of her entries. The majority of the text that was omitted dealt with sexual topics or Anne’s issues with her mother.
Otto couldn’t find a publisher, so the manuscript was given to historian Jan Romein, who was so moved by it that he featured it on the main page of the newspaper Het Parool in 1946. Het Achterhuis was published on June 25, 1947, thanks to the publicity that followed and a publishing agreement with Contact.
The work started to appear overseas after being an instant big seller in the Netherlands. The first American version of Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl was released in 1952 and featured an introduction by Eleanor Roosevelt.
Later, after being adapted for the theatre and the movie, the work was eventually translated into more than 65 different languages. The entire amount was donated to a foundation created in Anne’s honour.
A fresh English translation of the Diary was released in 1995, 15 years after Otto’s passing. It included information that had previously been excluded. Otto was added as a coauthor in 2015 in an effort to prolong the copyright date, which was scheduled to start expiring in several European nations in 2016.
Anne Frank Legacy
According to Bekker, who spoke to Live Science, “Anne’s depiction of the period spent in hiding in the Secret Annex; her powers of observation and self-reflection; her worries, hopes, and dreams still leave a strong impression on readers worldwide.”
“Through Anne’s journal, readers learn about the Holocaust and the Second World War as well as what it’s like to be marginalised and mistreated. Even after all these years, Anne’s diary is still relevant today.”
According to Klebe, Anne Frank is exceedingly well-known and has taken on a sacred status. On her behalf, a number of organisations carry out humanitarian activity.
It is a mistake, according to Klebe, to only pay attention to the humanitarian themes in Anne’s diary. In many ways, she was just a teenage girl trying to deal with being a teenage girl, but in extreme circumstances, Klebe said.
“She was positive and tried to see the good in things,” he said. “That, in my opinion, is the underlying reason why her narrative is so compelling and fascinating. It touches on issues that so many individuals encounter.”
According to Bekker, the diary is rather simple to read, which has made it a well-liked component of grade school classes all across the world. Because it is not about concentration camps and instead about a youngster, it offers a unique viewpoint on the Holocaust. It sets itself apart from previous histories thanks to its unvarnished honesty.
However, Klebe advised against utilising just Anne Frank’s diary to teach students about the Holocaust. It’s a fantastic starting place for discussing the Holocaust and children’s experiences, according to Klebe. We have her diary, but we also have to consider the other young girls who were present and whose diaries are not in our possession.